We have explained in our Kitab at-Tawheed lessons that the supplication for the dead at the graveyards does not mean they hear us. Shaikh Ibn ul-’Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy upon him) explained in Qawul-Mufeed (1/295) that one of the opinions in the explanation of the Hadith is that it is a mere supplication (for the dead) and not an address to the dead (by which they hear us).
Shaikh al-Albani (may Allah have mercy upon him) said: “Just as we address the dead when we say: ‘Peace be upon you all, O inhabitants of the graves, amongst the believers and the Muslims’ until the end of the supplication, which is well-known. However, that does not mean that we are addressing one who hears. The dead do not hear according the text of the Quran and Sunnah and I have explained this with a complete explanation in the introduction of the Book ‘The Clear Signs that the Dead do not Hear According to the Leading Imams of the Hanafiyyah”. It is an extensive introduction for the one who wants from among you more on the subject, let him return to it” End quote. [Silsilatul-Huda wan-Nur no. 148]
Shaikh Ibn ul-’Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy upon him) said in response to the one who claims that the Hadith is proof that the dead hear, that the “Muslims would say the greetings to the Prophet (ﷺ) during his life time in the Tashahhud and he (ﷺ) did not necessarily hear them” End quote. [Qawl ul-Mufeed Fi Sharh Kitab at-Tawheed (1/295-296)].
So how can it be said that the Prophet (ﷺ) or the dead in the graveyards who are in the Barzakh are able to hear someone when they read this supplication near them? It is not the case.
Shaikh al-Albani (may Allah have mercy upon him) mentioned a similar argument in The Clear Signs that the Dead do not Hear According to the Leading Imams of the Hanafiyyah (pg. 26)
So this supplication is not proof that the dead hear and Allah Knows Best.
Faisal Ibn Abdul Qaadir Ibn Hassan