Shaikh Salih al-Fawzaan (may Allah preserve him) said:
“For verily the Day of ‘Arafah is the ninth day of the blessed Dhul-Hijjah and it is the day of standing at ‘Arafah by the pilgrims and performing the greatest pillar. As the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Hajj is ‘Arafah”. That is, that the greatest pillar of Hajj is standing at ‘Arafah due to what it has of virtue, honor, and status with Allah, the Exalted. It is a blessed day. He (ﷺ) said:
“The best supplication is the supplication on the day of ‘Arafah. The best of what I said and the Prophets before me is: There is no Deity worthy of worship in truth except Allah alone without a partner, to Him is the kingdom and to Him is all praise. And He is over all things Omnipotent”.
So the pilgrims stand on this day of ‘Arafah to perform the greatest pillar of the pillars of Hajj. And it is the day which Allah completed the religion and Allah revealed to His Messenger (ﷺ) saying:
“This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion”
Those who are not pilgrims should increase in the remembrance of Allah with Takbir, Tasbeeh, Tahleel, and fast on this day. He (ﷺ) said:
“Fasting the Day of Arafah expiates the sins of the year before and the year after it” or as the Prophet (ﷺ) said”.
So the one who is not a pilgrim, he fasts the day of ‘Arafah. As for the pilgrim, then he does not fast in order to have strength to stand on ‘Arafah and devote himself to supplication. The Prophet (ﷺ) did not fast on the Day of ‘Arafah, rather he drank [something] and the people saw him on his riding animal until they knew that he was not fasting. So it is not recommended to fast on the Day of ‘Arafah for the pilgrim. It is only recommended for the one who is not a pilgrim.
Standing at ‘Arafah has its time and its place. As for its time, then it begins from the Zawwal of the sun, the entering of Dhuhr, according to the correct opinion of the Scholars. It begins with the entering of Dhuhr and extends until the emergence of Fajr on the night of Eid. Whoever stands from the day, then he continues until night and he does not leave until the sun sets as the Prophet (ﷺ) did. He (ﷺ) continued to remain standing until the sun set. He determined the sunset, then he went to Muzdalifah. If a person leaves before the sunset, it is necessary for him to return and remain until the sunset. If he does not return, then a fidyah is due upon him. This is because he left off an obligation from the obligations of Hajj, which is standing until sunset. So standing at ‘Arafah is a pillar. As for standing until sunset for the one who is standing at day, then it is obligatory. Whoever misses standing, then he has missed Hajj. Whoever does not stand from the day until the sunset, then he missed an obligation, which is continuing to stand until sunset. A fidyah is upon such a person. For this is the time for standing.
As for the one who stands at night. he comes to ‘Arafah at night, then it is sufficient for him any time of standing, even for a short time. He stands at ‘Arafah, supplicates, and then leaves. Even if the standing is little. Even if he passes it, intending to stand. Even if he passes it and he is a pilgrim. Even if he does not know [where it is], if he is in a state of ihram, and he is eager to stand at ‘Arafah and he searches for it and passes it, as a pilgrim, then he has performed the standing by passing it in the time of standing. This is in terms of the time period. In terms of the place, then ‘Arafah has clear boundaries, well-known pillars, and written signs that tell the boundaries of all the place. So it is upon the pilgrims to be certain to enter within the boundaries and the erected signs. In any place he finds [space] in ‘Arafah, then the standing occurs for them. In any place from the plain of ‘Arafah. He (ﷺ) said:
“I stood here, that is near the mountain and the rocks – and all of ‘Arafah is a place to stand. So keep away from the valley of ‘Uranah”.
So all of ‘Arafah is a place of standing. So there is no need for the pilgrim to go to the mountain and ascend the mountain and burden himself and those with him from the elderly, young ones, and the sick. There is nothing that calls for this and it is not Legislated. Rather in any place the pilgrim finds, and all praise is due to Allah, and he is in the state of Ihram on the plain of ‘Arafah, then he has fulfilled what is desired and Legislated for him. So he relaxes in his place and devotes himself to the remembrance of Allah and supplication. The pilgrims pray Dhuhr and ‘Asr in ‘Arafah, shortening and combining them in the time of Dhuhr [جمع التقديم] in order to devote themselves for supplication and worship. It is upon the pilgrims to strive in supplication and supplicate whether riding or standing on his feet or sitting or lying down. He supplicates in any situation he is in during the time of supplication. He strives in supplication and he has urgency in his supplication, perhaps Allah, the Exalted will answer him. He supplicates for himself, for his parents, for his brothers from the fellow Muslims, the living and the dead. He increases in supplication and is submissive due to the statement of the Prophet (ﷺ):
“The best supplication is the supplication of ‘Arafah”.
It is the best of supplications. So a Muslim strives in supplication in this time: between the Zawaal until the sunset if he is standing during the day.
He increases in supplication and he should not be heedless. He should not busy himself in what is not beneficial from engaging conversation, argument, and wasting time. There is not preventative from conversation, however to a limit. The amount that is necessary. The amount that does not waste a lot of the time of the Muslim. Rather he should use most of his time in supplication and remembering Allah, the Exalted in this blessed time. It is authentic in the Hadith that Allah boasts to the Angels with the people of ‘Arafah, on the eve of ‘Arafah saying:
“Look at my servants who come to me disheveled and dusty from every place. I bear witness that I have forgiven them. Disperse, you are forgiven and those whom you intercede for”.
This is a bounty from Allah and indicates the bounty of this day and the bounty of this blessed hour. On this day, Allah, the Exalted descends to the lowest heaven, boasting to the Angels about the pilgrims who are found in this place, in obedience to Allah, hoping for His reward, fearing his punishment. This is a great bounty and open display from the great displays. They are not driven for the desire of the worldly life nor driven by the ruler. They are only driven by Imaan. They came with a great longing, turning their hearts towards these places, not out of greed for the worldly life, nor fear from the creation. They only came out of fear for Allah, the Exalted, hoping for His reward, and desire for His forgiveness”
Faisal bin Abdul Qaadir bin Hassan