When it is the day of resurrection, the soul returns to the body which it used to be in, and this is the statement of all of the Salaf.
The proof for that is:
1. Allah Ta’ala said:
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُمْ بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ ۗ
Surely! Those who disbelieved in Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment. [4:56]
The point of reference is that when the skin is burnt it is changed and not the body.
2. Allah Ta’ala said:
حَتَّى إِذَا مَا جَاءُوهَا شَهِدَ عَلَيْهِمْ سَمْعُهُمْ وَأَبْصَارُهُمْ وَجُلُودُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
Till, when they reach it (Hell-fire), their hearing (ears) and their eyes, and their skins will testify against them as to what they used to do. [41:20]
The point of reference is that if it was a different body, then upon what will it testify while he hasn’t done anything [with that body]?
3. Allah Ta’ala said:
الْيَوْمَ نَخْتِمُ عَلَىٰ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتُكَلِّمُنَا أَيْدِيهِمْ وَتَشْهَدُ أَرْجُلُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ
This Day, We shall seal up their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their legs will bear witness to what they used to earn. [36:65]
4. Allah Ta’ala said:
يَوْمَ تَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَلْسِنَتُهُمْ وَأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ
On the Day when their tongues, their hands, and their legs or feet will bear witness against them as to what they used to do. [24:24]
The philosophers opposed [the people of Sunnah] in this and from them is Avicenna. They said the soul is that which is resurrected, and they rejected that the body gets resurrected. They [those who say this] are disbelievers by consensus of the Muslims.
Others said the bodies are resurrected and not the souls. This is misguidance and astray. Look at Majmoo’ Al Fataawa 4/283
From them are those who said the souls are resurrected in different bodies [than that which they had], and this is an innovated statement. Look at the explanation of Al Waasitiyah of Al Harraas page 65, and of Al Uthaymeen 2/128-130.
[At Tuhfatul Aliyah Ala Al Manthumatil Laamiyah by Ash Shaykh Muhammad Baajamaal Page: 144]
Majid Jawed Al-Afghanee