You mentioned as it relates to the issue or Dua’a or raising the hands during the Dua’a; that the Salaf, the Companions, and the people of knowledge would supplicate before the Salaam. Thus as it relates to the issue of raising the hands after the prayer, is this for the obligatory prayers and the supererogatory prayers likewise, is it better for the person to raise his hands or not?
May Allah bless you. Firstly; do not ask about raising the hands after the prayer. Ask about Dua’a after the prayer. Is it legislated or not? We say: It is not legislated; because Allah said:
فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلاةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ
And when you have completed the prayer, remember Allah (Soorah An Nisa 4:103)
He did not say: ‘Supplicate.’ Therefore the place for Dua’a is not after the prayer. The place for Dua’a is before the Salaam (before the Salaam to exit the prayer).
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم used to teach his companions the tashahhud, and he said: ‘Then after it (the tashahhud), supplicate as you like’. Thus he made the place for Dua’a before the Salaam.
And he advised Muadh رضي الله عنه to say after the final tashahhud before the Salaam:
اللَّهُمَّ أَعِنِّي عَلَى ذِكْرِكَ وَشُكْرِكِ وَحُسْنِ عِبَادَتِكِ
“O Allah, help me in remembering You, in giving You thanks, and worshipping You well.”
(Collected by Abu Dawud 1522)
And this is a Dua’a. And this is necessitated by the intent, because as long as the person is praying he is conversing with Allah, and when he leaves the prayer the conversation ends. So is it more befitting to supplicate while you are conversing with Allah or after you have left the conversation? The first is more befitting (to supplicate while you are conversing with Allah). And there is no difference whether it is the obligatory prayers or the supererogatory prayers.
Second: after the prescribed prayers and it is the plural of (دبر ) and it is the end of prayer. This is because the (دبر ) is the end of everything and it is before the salutations and not after it. The evidence for that is in the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger sallahu alayhi wa ‘ala alihi wa salam. As for in the Book of Allah, then Allah said:
إذا قضيتم الصلاة فاذكروا الله قياما وقعودا وعلى جنوبكم
When you have finished As-Salat (the prayer – congregational), remember Allah standing, sitting down, and lying down on your sides, but when you are free from danger, perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as- Salat). Verily, the prayer is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours
And He did not mention supplication rather He ordered remembrance. There came a clear Sunnah which he sallahu alayhi wa salam legislated the one praying to say when he finishes his prayer:
أن يستغفر الله ثلاثا ويقول اللهم أنت السلام ومنك السلام تباركت يا ذا الجلال والإكرام
he would beg forgiveness from Allah thrice and then would recite: “Allahumma Antas- Salamu, wa minkas-salamu, tabarakta ya Dhal-Jalali wal-Ikram (O Allah, You are the Grantor of security, and security comes from You. You are Blessing, O You Who have majesty and nobility)!
[Bukhari and Muslim]
[Then the shaikh mentions other authentic dua and continues to say]…
So him making supplication before finishing his prayer is more deserving then him making supplication when he finishes his prayer”.
[Taken from: Fatawaa Noor ‘ala Darb]
Faisal Ibn Abdul Qaadir Ibn Hassan